LAMMPS is a classical molecular dynamics code and an acronym for “Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator”.
LAMMPS has potential for dealing with soft materials (biomolecules, polymers), solid-state materials (metals, semiconductors)
and coarse-grained systems. LAMMPS development began in the mid 1990’s under a cooperative research & development agreement
between two US Department of Energy labs (Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and 3
commercial companies (Cray, Bristol Myers Squibb, and Dupont). LAMMPS is currently an open source technology base widely used
in the field of Molecular Dynamics research. LAMMPS also includes a granular package which is an ideal platform to build Discrete
Element Modeling (DEM) technology.
Built upon the LAMMPS engine, LIGGGHTS is an open source DEM Particle Simulation engine developed by researchers at the
Department of Particulate Flow Modeling at the Johannes Kepler University in Linz, Austria. Besides this technical base at
JKU Linz, research team members come from Graz University of Technology (Austria), Freiberg University of Mining and Technology
(Germany), Imperial College London (UK), Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg (Germany), École polytechnique fédérale
de Lausanne (Switzerland) and Aalto University (Finland). The LIGGGHTS “LAMMPS Improved for General Granular and Granular
Heat Transfer Simulations” project goal is to provide an improved tool for solving real world industrial problems. The LIGGGHTS
project development team is active and growing worldwide.
“Applied DEM” began development of its DEM simulation engine in 1996 in conjunction with Dr. Graham Mustoe of the Colorado
School of Mines (USA). Chute Analyst™ was born in 1997 and was used as a consulting tool to design belt conveyor transfer
chutes for mining and industrial applications around the world. Chute Analyst™ became commercially available under license
in 2005. In 2008, an improved engine was released. “Bulk Flow Analyst™ was a more general purpose DEM simulation package which
included an easy to use pre-processor which interfaced with most CAD programs and a post processing visualization tool.
“Applied DEM” is an organization of engineers and software professionals whose goal is to interface between the world’s top
DEM research professionals and the engineers who have specific problems to solve. With over 17 years of experience working
with DEM technology and solving these complex problems, we have learned a great deal about the strengths and weaknesses of
these advanced numerical modeling tools. Over these 17 years we have seen these numerical tools as well as computation hardware
improve dramatically. Today, we are able to tackle much more complex problems than ever before. But the learning and growing
curve is still steep.
As such, effective November 1, 2013, “Applied DEM” is merging our existing Bulk Flow Analyst™ product with the impressive and
extensive LAMMPS / LIGGGHTS research teams.
Past Bulk Flow Analyst™ users will not notice much difference in the pre and post processing tools,
but the performance of the execution engine will be significantly better.
- This switch will give us access to:
- Efficient parallelization algorithms allowing multi-threading execution- This release will take us from a single processor
operation to 32 processors (LIGGGHTS researchers have been able to process large problems on up to 9000 simultaneous processors
to date so we will have great opportunities to increase our performance even more in the near future).
- Multi-threading will allow us to effectively increase the number of particles in a simulation from around 100,000 (a limit due
to the length of processing time) to over 1,000,000 particles. And we will go much higher in the near future.
- In time, LIGGGHTS will also allow us to:
- Solve problems with increasingly complex moving components
- Expand our contact force algorithms broadening its application base
- Define and simulate more complex particle shapes
- Solve problems with heat conduction between particles in contact
- Include electrostatic forces
- Couple with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
- Couple with Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
- Couple with Multi Body Dynamics (MBD)
- Solve particle fracturing problems